Everything you need to know about academic research & writing skills

       Miscellaneous > Everything you need to know about academic research & writing skills


  "Genius is 1% inspiration, and 99% perspiration."
   Taking from Thomas Edison quote which is meant that "Genius  is largely the result of hard work, rather than
   an inspired flash of insight."

Nowadays, most students encounter a number of problems when they begin writing for academic purposes such as term paper research, thesis, and dissertation because they don’t know anything about the principles of academic writing. The academic writing is important for students of all kinds. It develops writing skills and builds research knowledge among students. Therefore, I would like in this page providing rich resources for those students that need to improve their academic writing skills and supporting excellence and creativity of researchers in their fields to achieve global leadership.

The following links provide important information about academic writing skills:

A) Glossary of terms frequently used in research

B) Differences between academic writing and other types of writing

C) Introduction to scientific methods and research process

D) Research and publication cycle

E) Research question, hypotheses, and errors in testing a hypothesis
F) Differences between limitations and delimitations in research

G) Research methods: Qualitative and Quantitative
H) Data collection methods and its types

I) Sampling techniques

J) Reliability and validity

K) Learn more information about how to write an essay, term paper, proposals,  thesis, dissertation, literature
    review, research paper, article review, conference Papers, book report, book review, progress report, field
    reports, reaction paper, lab report, lab notebook, Curriculum Vitae (CV), Statement of Purpose (SOP), outline, 
, and short communication report,

L) Citations, References, and Bibliography
M) Research ethics

N) Types of journals (publications) & list of databases and journals

O) Types of information sources

P) Advice on research and writing skills

Q) Academic libraries





A) Glossary of terms frequently used in research
     Here you can find commonly used research terms. These research terms can help students understand
     difficult and confused terms in research courses.
    > Glossary of key terms
    > Glossary of research terms
    > Research and Evaluation Glossary
    > Research glossary
    > Scientific Writing and Editing
    > Psychology Research Terminology



B) Differences between academic writing and other types of writing
    > Academic Writing also known as scholarly writing. It has different forms and it is written by scholars.
    > The Online Technical Writing includes a different types of technical reports on its web site.
    > Academic Writing - Waylink English
    > Technical report - RMIT University


C) Introduction to scientific methods and research process
     > Steps of the scientific methods - Science Buddies
     > Research Process Flowchart - University of Leeds
     > Educational research process - The University of Texas at Austin



D) Research and publication cycle
    > Research and publication cycle - Acadia University
    > Scientific Research/Publication Cycle - Humboldt State University Library
    > Publication and access cycle - University of Illinois
    > The scientific publication cycle - University of Washington Libraries
    > The Scientific Publishing cycle - The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill


E) Research question, hypotheses, and errors in testing a hypothesis
     Formation a research question (RQ) is important for beginning any research. Research question leads to
     a hypothesis.
     Below is a list of links for more explanation about research questions and hypotheses.
     > There are three types of research questions: descriptive questions, relational questions, and causal
        question - The Research Methods Knowledge Base
     > Overview of research questions and hypotheses with examples -Wilderdom.com
     > Stating  research question and research hypotheses - Purdue University
     > Sample Research Questions and Suggested Research Techniques and Designs - Columbia University
     > Going from the research question to research designs - The University of Texas
     > Developing hypothesis and research questions - Arizona State University
     > Hypotheses (characteristics of hypotheses, type of hypotheses, and matrix of hypotheses)
     > Principles and Methods in Educational Research - The University of Connecticut
     > Research Problems, Variables, and Hypotheses - Pearson Education
     > Correlation study - EXPERIMENT-RESOURCES.COM
     > Type I and Type II Errors - Making Mistakes in the Justice System - Medizinsichen Universität Graz
     > Types of Null Hypotheses - Dissertation-statistics.com
     > ERRORS IN HYPOTHESIS TESTING - The Psychology Department at Missouri State University

F) Differences between limitations and delimitations in research
    > LIMITATIONS, DELIMITATIONS - Arkansas State University
    > Planning the Methodology - Limitations and Delimitations - Baltimore County Public Schools

G) Research methods: Qualitative and Quantitative
    There are three main forms of research methods: Exploratory research, constructive research, and
    empirical research. In social sciences and other disciplines research methods can be classified into two
    most common methods: qualitative and quantitative.
    The following are links to resources that are very useful for distinctions between qualitative and
    quantitative research methods.
    > Overview of research methods - The University of North Carolina Wilmington.
    > Research models and methodologies - University of Wollongong
    > Research methods - Northwestern University
    > Research Methods - Mahindra United World College of India
    > Research Methodology Course - UNITE FOR SIGHT
    > Qualitative versus Quantitative Research - Wilderdom.com
    > Differences between qualitative and quantitative research methods - Oak Ridge Associated
       Universities for Science and education
    > Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research - University of South Alabama
    > Quantitative versus Qualitative Research - DistinctiveManagement
    > Quantitative research design - SportScience
    > Research design: Qualitative methods - CharlesDennisHale.com
    > Mix Methods - The NSW Primary Health Care Research Capacity Building Program
    > Mixed Research: Mixed Method and Mixed Model Research - University of South Alabama
    > Qualitative dissertation outline - Qualitative Dissertation Outline
    > Designing your research methodology - Routledge
    > eResearch Methods - University of Southampton
    > Research Methods - Central Washington University
    > Emic and Etic Approaches - Harvard University
    > EMIC AND ETIC PERSPECTIVES - University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire

    > Practical Research Methods - Dr Catherine Dawson



H) Data collection methods and its types
     > Data Collection, Primary vs. Secondary - Joop Hox.
     > Data collection methods - University of KwaZulu-Natal
     > A template for structured interviews - Sociology Centeral
     > Learn from this site how to design a survey - What IS A Survey?
     > Introduction to survey research design -  University of Illinois



I) Sampling techniques
    > Types of Samples - University of California
    > Population and sample. Sampling techniques - University of Sevill
    > Sampling techniques: Advantages and disadvantage - University of Idaho



J) Reliability and validity
 The following are links for understanding instrument reliability and validity in qualitative and quantitative
   research for the data collection.
   > Qualitative validity - The Research Methods Knowledge Base
   > Population, Samples, and Validity
   > Reliability & Validity - The Research Methods Knowledge Base
   > Validity and Reliability - National Center for Technology Innovation
   > RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY - Oklahoma State University
   > Validity and Reliability - University of the West of England
   > Writing Guide: Reliability and Validity -  Colorado State University
   > Understanding Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research - By Nahid Golafshani from University of Toronto
   > Validity - Florida Institute of Technology
   > Internal and external validity - University of New England
   > Internal and External validity - The University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey
   > What are the four methods of establishing reliability? - St. Ambrose University
   > Threats to internal and external validity - Southern Utah University
   > Experimental Validity - AllPsych Online
   > Triangulation: Establishing the Validity of Qualitative Studies - University of Florida
   > Triangulation and its types - Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods
   > Triangulation as a powerful tool to strengthen the qualitative research design - University of Leeds
   > Major Sources of Bias in Research Studies - University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey



K) Learn more information about how to write an essay, term paper, proposals,  thesis, dissertation, literature
    review, research paper, article review, conference Papers, book report, book review, progress report, field
    reports, reaction paper, lab report, lab notebook, Curriculum Vitae (CV), Statement of Purpose (SOP), outline, 
    and memo.

   a. Writing an essay
       > How is an essay structured? - University of Wollongong
       > Essay writing - The University of New South Wales
       > Guide to writing a basic essay -
klivingston.tripod website
       > Essaymama's Essay Writing Guide
       > Ninja Essays     

    b. Writing a term paper
        > 57 Tips for Writing Your Term Paper - CollegeOnline.org
        > How To Write A Term Paper - EssayBay
        > BuzzEssay

   c. Writing thesis, dissertation, and research proposals
       > THE ELEMENTS OF A PROPOSAL - Emory University
       > Thesis proposals - The University of New South Wales
       > Suggestions for preparing a Dissertation/Thesis Proposal - University of Florida
       > Develop a Research Proposal - Baltimore County Public Schools
       > A research proposal - Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University
       > Research Proposal Form - King Abdulaziz University
       > 105 indispensable recourses for online academic research - OnlinePhDProgram:


    d. Writing research thesis and dissertation
        > WRITING RESEARCH THESES OR DISSERTATIONS (guidelines and tips) - Newcastle University
        > Format of a Thesis or Dissertation -  Central Washington University
        > Style Guide for the Writing of an Honours Dissertation - Monash University
        > The PhD Experience - King Abdulaziz University
        > Concept paper template - Northcentral University


     e. Writing a literature review
        It gives published material relevant to your work. There is also some useful websites which are listed
        > Writing a literature - University of Canberra
        > Overview of significant literature published on a topic - Mount Aloysius College
        > A Guide to Writing the Dissertation Literature Review- Practical assessment, research and evaluation
        > Literature reviews handout - The University of North Carolina of Chapel Hill
        > Literature Review: Synthesizing Multiple Sources - Indiana University


    f. Writing a research paper
        > LEO: Literacy Education Online - St. Cloud State University
        > Writing the research paper - Dartmouth College
        > Writing a Research Paper -
        > Sample research paper: APA style - RESEARCH AND DOCUMENTATION ONLINE
        > Guidelines for preparing research reports - University of South Carolina
        > Writing a Scientific Research Paper - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
        > IMRAD Structure of a Paper - University of Oulu
        > How to Write the Methods Section of a Research Paper - American Association for Respiratory Care
        > Tips and Guidance for Students Writing Papers and Reports - The University of New South Wales
        > Academic report Writing Template - The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
> Academic Writing Guide - University of Seattle


     g. Writing an article review
          > What’s a “Review Article?” - The University of Texas at Austin
          > Writing an Article Review - Concordia University
          > Review Article Guidelines for Students on Rotation - A.T. Still University of Health Sciences


      h. Conference paper
          > Conference papers - University College Dublin
          > Prepare For A Conference - Society of Petroleum Engineers
          > WRITING AN ABSTRACT - Committee for Education and Cultural Action
          > CONFERENCE PAPER TYPES - Claremont Graduate University


       i. Writing a concept paper 
          > What Is A Concept Paper? - mcguire-spickard.com


       j. Writing a book review
           > Writing Book Reviews - Indiana University
           > How to Write a Book Review - Los Angeles Valley College
           > Book Reviews: How to Write Book Reviews - Queen's University
      k. Writing a book report
           > The Book Report - Lakewood Public Library
           > Writing a Book Report - Purdue University

      l. Writing a progress report
         > Guidelines for Writing a Progress Report -  Northern Illinois University
         > Writing a Progress Report - Texas A&M University
         > Preparation of progress report - King Abdulaziz University


      m. Writing a field report
            > Writing Field Reports - University of Wollongong
      n. Writing a reaction report
           > What is a reaction paper - Art Resources for Teachers
           > Writing a Reaction or Response essay - St. Cloud State University, 

      o. Writing a lab report 
           > How to write a lab report -  Biochemistry & ComputerScience website

      p. Writing a lab notebook
          > Keeping a laboratory notebook - Biochemistry & ComputerScience website


      q. Writing a Curriculum Vitae (CV) and resume
           > Resumes & CVs - CVTips
           > Resume - Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
           > Curriculum Vitae - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
           > LiveCareer CV's


       r. Writing a Statement of Purpose (SOP) or Personal statement
          > Writing the Statement of Purpose and Developing Your CV - University of California
          > Format for Writing Statement of Purpose - Inowest Consultants
          > How to write an effective personal statement - Durham University
          > WRITING A PERSONAL STATEMENT - Binghamton University
       s. Writing an outline
           > Four Main Components for Effective Outlines - Purdue University
           > Types of Outlines and Samples -
 Purdue University
           > Sample Research Paper Outline - TeacherVision
           > How to write an outline - Custom writing

       t. Writing a memo
          > Writing Guide: Writing Memos - Colorado State University
          > Memos - The Center for Communication Practices
          > How to Write Memos - The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

       u. Taking notes
           > Notetaking: Learning from Lectures - Concordia University
> Note-taking - The University of Melbourne
           > Summarising & note-taking - UEfAP.com


       v. Writing a short communication report
           > Format of short communications - Electronic journal of biotechnology



L) Citations, References, and Bibliography

    If you summarize, paraphrase, or quote other People's Work, you must cite the sources in the text of the
    thesis, dissertation, research paper, and other types of writing. Any citation in the text must appear in list of
    references, list of works cited, or list of bibliography. There are various styles for citation can be used in writing
    according to university and your field. The most common citation styles are APA, MLA, Harvard, Chicago, and
    Turabian. APA style is usually used in science and social science, but MLA style is usually used in Humanities
    The following links provide the information for citation styles, evaluation information sources, and useful links
    for online bibliography makers.
    > How and When to Cite Other People’s Work - University of Washington
    > Citation Styles for Research Papers - Which should you use? - UtahState University
    > Citing sources - University of Houston-Downtown
    > Reference Machine - In-text Citations - The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
    > A Writer's Reference - BFW
    > Harvard System of Referencing Guide - Anglia Ruskin University
    > Basics of APA Style Tutorial - America Psychological Assosiation
    > American Psychological Style - PsycINFO®
    > APA Referencing Guide (6th Edition) - The University of Waikato
    > APA Exposed - Harvard University
    > APA Citation Style - Cornell University Library
    > Citing Sources - Duke University
    > Managing bibliographies & and citing in Word document when writing articles using EndNote program -
       Biochemistry & ComputerScience website
    > Create a bibliography - Biochemistry & ComputerScience website
    > Bibliography makers - Biochemistry & ComputerScience website
    > Annotated bibliography - University of Canberra
    > Annotated Bibliography -The University of New South Wales
    > Annotated bibliography - University of Otago
    > Preparing an Annotated Bibliography - Indiana University
    > Evaluating Web Sites for Academic Research  - University of New Haven
    > Evaluating a web site - CLassZone
    > Critical Evaluation of Resources - University in Louisville
    > Works Cited, References, and Bibliography - What's the Difference? - A Research Guide for Students
    > Student's guide to citation styles for research papers - studyweb.com



M) Research ethics

     > Ethics in Research - The Research Methods Knowledge Base
     > What is Ethics in Research & Why is It Important?- National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences -
         National Institutes of Health
     > Ethics principles - The Research Ethics Guidebook
     > A guide to research ethics - University of Minnesota
     > Avoiding plagiarism - The University of Wisconsin-Madison
     > Avoiding PLAGIARISM - University of California, Davis
     > Avoiding Plagiarism - DePauw University
     > A Graduate Student's Guide to Determining Authorship Credit and Authorship Order - University of Notre
     > Case Study: Who is an Author? - The University of Minnesota
> Avoiding plagiarism, self-plagiarism, and other questionable writing practices: A guide to ethical writing -
        St. John's University
     > Types of Plagiarism - State University of New York
     > The Plagiarism Self Assessment - George Brown College
     > Plagiarism: What It is and How to Recognize and Avoid It - Indiana University
     > How Not to Plagiarize - University of Toronto
> How to Recognize Plagiarism - Indiana University
     > Plagiarism Test - Indiana University
     > Plagiarism and Self-plagiarism in the sciences: Definitions and cases - I BRISPE
     > What is the Academic Integrity Tutorial? - York University
     > Plagirism - CHEST
     > Plagirism.org
     > Unplag.com

     > Avoiding plagiarism in scientific research - King Abdulaziz University


N) Types of journals (publications) & list of databases and journals

    This a list provide information about distinguishing between different types of journals.
    > Types of journal manuscripts - Springer Journal
    > Explaining Journal Articles - The University of Queensland
    > Types of Journals - Adapted from Camden-Carroll Library
    > What is a Scholarly Journal? A Popular Magazine? A Trade Journal? - Spring Hill College
    > Finding and comparing scholarly, popular, and trade journal articles - San Diego State University
    > Scholarly Journals, Trade Publications, and Popular Magazine - ProQuest
> What’s the Difference Between Scholarly Journals and Popular Magazines? - Texas A&M University-
        Corpus Christi
    > Distinguishing Scholarly Journals from Other Periodicals - Cornell University
    > Characteristics of Scholarly and Popular Writing - The University of British Columbia
    > What is a peer-reviewed journal? - University of Southern Maine
    > Finding Peer-reviewed or Refereed Journals - California Polytechnic State University
    > Peer reviewed materials - University of Alberta
    > How to... survive peer review and revise your paper - Emerald 
    > Scrutinizing science: Peer review - The University of California Museum of Paleontology
    > How to Find Scholarly or Peer Reviewed Articles - Flagler College
    > Popular Literature vs. Scholarly Peer-Reviewed Literature: What's the Difference? - The State
       University of New Jersey
    > IJCTA-Peer Review Process - International Journal of Computer Technology and Applications   
    > Peer-reviewed open access journals - University of Colorado
    > Biochemistry and scientific journals - Biochemistry & ComputerScience website
    > The Journal Citation Reports® tutorial - Thomson Reuter
    > American Association for Cancer Research - Impact Factor - American Association for Cancer Research
    > Guide to academic and scientific publication: How to get your writing published in scholarly journals -
       Proofreading and editing service.


O) Types of information sources
     The following links provide different types of information sources as primary, secondary, and Tertiary
     information. It helps you in searching about your topic.
     > Primary/Secondary Literature - University of New Hampshire Library
     > Distinguish between Primary and Secondary sources - University of California
     > Identifying Primary and Secondary Sources - Indiana University
     > Primary and Secondary Sources - University of Washington
     > Primary and Secondary Sources - SchoolWorld an edline solution
     > Primary, Secondary & Tertiary Sources - James Cook University
     > Primary and secondary research - NSW HSC Online



P) Advice on research and writing skills
    > Research skills videos - Biochemistry & ComputerScience website
    > Personal view on scientific writing - Newcastle University
    > Research Strategy - University of Northernlowa
    > A research guide for students - OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc.
    > Research Guides - University of Lethbridge Library
    > information & research instruction site - Clark College
    > High School Research Course - Baltimore County Public Schools
    > The research literature basics tutorial - The University of Southern Mississippi
    > Toolbox of Research - University of Oulu
    > The Research Process - Nova Southeastern University 
    > Research Guides - University of Lethbridge
    > Writing guides - The University of Kansas
    > Writing resources - Walden University
    > General Writing Resources - Purdue University
    > Writing@CSU - Colorado State University
    > Learning lab / Writing skills - RMIT University
    > The Center for Writing Studies - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
    > The Writing Center - Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
    > Writing Skills Online - James Cook University
    > Specific Types of Writing - University of Toronto
    > Academic Writing Tips - Academic Writing Tips
    > Academic writing - Massey University
    > Improving your writing - University of Aberdeen
    > Writing Tutorial Services - Indiana University
    > UW-Madison Writer's Handbook - The University of Wisconsin-Madison
    > Student Learning Services - Concordia University
    > HANDOUTS & LINKS - University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 
    > Analysis of professional literature - Wilderdom.com
    > Information Literacy Tutorial - Spring Hill College
    > Survey Research Library - StatPac
    > Academic papers and reports - Microsoft Corporation
    > Scientific research blog - Dr. Hariri - King Abdulaziz University
    > RESOURCES FOR STUDENTS - Claremont Graduate University
    > Synthesizing Information: Step-by-Step Instructions For Learners - Arizona State University
    > INTRODUCTION TO SYNTHESES - Michigan State University
    > Information Synthesis: A Practical Guide - PubMed Central
    > Synthesis Writing - Drew University
    > Synthesizing / Solving - Baltimore County Public Schools
    > What is a research gap? - Michigan State University
    > Find the Gap - ETH Zurich
    > Latin terms and abbreviations - The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    > Academic writing blog
    > Numbers and abbreviations in writing - Birmingham City University
    > Proofreading symbols - Interactive Training Ltd
    > Mechanics of writing -  Pearson Education Ltd
    > Errata - U.S. National Library of Medicine
    > Twelve rules for writing a publishable article - University of Notre Dame
    > Writing and communication  - Online Courses Australia


Q) Academic libraries
     > Deanship of Library Affairs - King Abdulaziz University
     > Saudi Digital Library - King Abdulaziz University
     > Academic Libraries in the Yahoo! Directory
     > Brookens Library - University of Illinois at Springfield
     > KU Libraries - The University of Kansas
     > W.I. DYKES LIBRARY - University of Houston-Downtown 
     > Libraries - Dalhousie University
     > Scholarly Writing and Citation Resources - California Institute of Integral Studies
     > The Cochrane Library - The German Cochrane Centre and the University Hospital at Freiburg





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